1. Select CYRM/ARM version

There are different versions of the CYRM and ARM that you can use to measure resilience. These include the basic age appropriate versions: The CYRM-R (for 5-9 years and 10-23 years), and the ARM-R (for 18+).

For each age group, there are 3- and 5-point Likert scale versions. There are also versions with simplified language for individuals with limited comprehension.

Finally, there are Person Most Knowledgeable (PMK) versions of each measure that can be completed by an individual who knows the target individual well. In the user's manual we provide a guide to help you decide the best measure for your study. The versions of the measures are also presented below:

Measure Recommended age of target individual Completed by Scoring system Language
CYRM-R 5-9 Child: Self-report 3/5-point Standard
CYRM-R 10-23 Youth: Self-report 3/5-point Standard/simplified
ARM-R 18+ Adult: Self-report 3/5-point Standard/simplified
PMK-CYRM-R 5-9 Person Most Knowledgeable 3/5-point Standard
PMK-CYRM-R 10-23 Person Most Knowledgeable 3/5-point Standard/simplified
PMK-ARM-R 18+ Person Most Knowledgeable 3/5-point Standard/simplified

2. Contextualise (optional)

Once you have selected the appropriate measure for use, we recommend a process of contextualisation, which involves bringing together individuals familiar with your context to discuss resilience. This group should be made up of individuals who may eventually use the measure as well as experts (for example, young people living in a particular community, community elders, and researchers or socials workers who are familiar with the community where the research will take place).

The group should discuss what resilience means to them and what factors or resources are important for individuals to show resilience. The group should also review the items in the chosen measure to determine if they are all appropriate or require alteration to obtain a more sensitive assessment of resilience. Further explanation and guidance on this process is given in the user's manual.

3. Administer

Once the appropriate measure has been selected (and adapted if necessary), you should determine whether your participants are able to complete the measure themselves or whether it should be verbally administered (read to them).

Administration takes approximately 5-10 minutes depending on level of comprehension.

4. Score

The statements are completed on either a three- or five-point scale. Responses are summed by the administrator to get a measure of an individual’s resilience. You can find out more about scoring and subscale scoring in the user's manual.


Many users have translated the measures for use in different contexts. We offer those versions on our download page for you to reference. They are currently available in the following languages:

  • Albanian
  • Arabic
  • Bengali
  • Chinese
  • Farsi
  • Filipino
  • Finnish
  • French
  • German
  • Hindi
  • Indonesian
  • Italian
  • Korean
  • Lugandan
  • Polish
  • Portuguese (Portugal)
  • Portuguese (Brazil)
  • Setswana/Tswana
  • Slovenian
  • Spanish (Spain)
  • Spanish (Colombia)
  • Turkish
  • Urdu

These translations have been created by researchers who have worked with the RRC. However, each translation was done independently and, therefore, we cannot guarantee their accuracy.

If you would like to create your own translation, no special authorisation is required. We just ask that you share your translation with us so we can share it with others. We recommend a translation and back translation process to enhance the validity of the translated measure (see guides by Brislin (1970) and van Ommeren and colleagues (1999)).