On this page you can find information about the properties of the measures, including their validity and reliability [update in process].
A list of studies that used the measures can also be found below.

Validation of the CYRM/ARM

In the table below we share some of the studies that have validated the measures. Please see the user’s manual for further information on the validity and reliability of the measures.

Authors (Year) Measure Location Sample Validation
Jefferies, McGarrigle, & Ungar. (2018) CYRM-R Canada 689 Rasch validated
α = .82
Daigneault, Dion, Hébert, McDuff, & Collin-Vézina. (2013) CYRM-28 (French) Canada

Study 1: 689

Study 2: 246

Study 1: α = .88

Study 2: α = .87

Liebenberg, Ungar, & Van de Vijver. (2012) CYRM-28 (English) Canada T1=497; T2=410 α = .65 to .91
Liebenberg, Ungar, & LeBlanc. (2013) CYRM-12 (English) Canada 1,616 α = .84
Sanders, Munford, Thimasarn-Anwar, & Liebenberg. (2015) CYRM-28 (English) New Zealand 593 α = .66 to .81
Mu & Hu. (2016) CYRM-12 (Chinese) China 437 α = .92
Liebenberg & Moore. (2016) ARM-28 (English) Ireland 105 α = .80 to .95

If you would like to share your validation study with us, please get in touch.

Studies that have used the measures

Please contact us to include your work in this list, but note that we can only include published studies.

[1. CYRM]

Authors Location Sample size (N) Sex/Gender Age (years) Sample characteristics 17-item score [Mean (SD)]* Other score [Mean (SD)] Measure adaption notes Relationship studied / Purpose of study
Abualkibach & Lera Rodriquez (2015) Palestine West Bank 537 M=242, F=295 13-14 Palestine school students (8th and 9th grades) living under adversity in the West Bank ~66.3 (~11.59) 3.9 (0.68) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Factors in which the individual skills, family support and contextual components contribute in the psychological resilience 
Abualkibach & Lera Rodriquez (2017) Palestine West Bank 537 M=242, F=295 13-14 Palestine school students living under adversity in the West Bank ~64.6 (~11.42) 3.8 (0.67) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Basic Psychological Needs (BPN) and factors predicting resilience 
Arslan (2016) Isparta, Turkey 1352 M=435, F=502 14-19 Adolescents from 6 randomly selected high schools in Isparta, Turkey ~64.22 (~14.21) 45.33 (10.03) Using 12 item version Mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment- emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents 
Baginksy et al. (2017) Australia A (42), B (48) _ A=6-10, B=11-17 Children of families who participated in SoS program A: ~68.47 (~13.03), B: ~61.39 (~16.86) A: 29 (9.2), B: 26 (11.9) Using 12 item version Outcomes of Signs of Safety (SoS) program on youth resilience
Boden, Sanders, Munford, Liebenberg, & McLeod (2015) New Zealand SG (593), CG (773) SG (M=350, F=243); CG (M=472, F=301) SG (M=15.3), CG (M=15.0) Part of the New Zealand Youth Transitions Research Program, a longitudinal, mixed-methods study of the transi- tion to young adulthood for a group of vulnerable teenagers. Compares 778 youth who were progressing in a more or less normative fashion through high school (CG) with 593 who were facing significant challenges (SG) SG: ~62.80 (~9.74), CG: ~67.21 (~8.92) SG: 103.44 (16.04), CG: 110.70 (14.69) Using 28 item version Predictors of positive developmental outcomes, includ- ing: life satisfaction; optimism; educational achievement; civic engagement; and pos- itive peer influence; in a sample of young people comprised of a study group (SG) facing significant challenges and a comparison group (CG)
Borualogo (2018) West Java 33 F=33 15-23 Female human trafficking victims ~66.36 ~3.90  Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Describe resilience on human trafficking 
Brodersen (2010) British Columbia, Canada 55 M=39, F=16 12-17 Adolescents sentenced to probation orders ~67.62 (~9.52) 111.38 (15.68) Using 28 item version Reliability, validity and clinical utility of the CYRM in an adolescent offender population 
Collin-Vezina, Coleman, Milne, Sell, & Daigneault (2011) Montreal, Canada  53 M=29, F=24 14-17 Youth in residential care facilities ~60.44 (~11.39) ~3.56 (~0.67) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Impact of gender and of the number of different traumas experienced on trauma-related sequels and resilience features. 
Craft (2017) U.S.A. 5 _ 10-17 Young people with stutters, measured pre- and post-intervention Pre: ~64.84 (~5.97), Post: ~72.86 (~6.44) Pre: 106.8 (9.83), Post: 120 (10.61) Using 28 item version Impact of a specialized group fluency program on promoting resiliency in adolescents who stutter, relationship between resilience and overall impact of stuttering 
Daigneault & Dion (2010) Quebec, Canada 771 M=338, F=433 9-11 French speaking youths from 3 Quebec province high schools (grades 4 and 5) ~63.34 (~8.16) 104.33 (13.44) Using 28 item version Adolescent resilience, mindfulness, and self esteem after sexual abuse trauma
Doss (2017) U.S.A. 58 M=15, F=23 14-20 Children who have at least one active duty parent serving in the United States Armed Forces  F: ~69.02 (~1.41), M: ~66.13 (~1.05) F: 4.06 (0.08), M: 3.89 (0.06) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Factors of the military life and how it impacts the variance of self-esteem, social belongingness, and resilience of the military child 
Erdem (2017) Turkey 451 M= 199, F=252 15-19 High school students ~28.74 (~11.04) 47.33 (7.79) Using 12 item version, translated into Turkish Attachment to parents and resilience
Estanislao (2017) Manila, Philippines 274 M=120, F=154 18-25 Undergraduate students in the tertiary level coming from a university in Manila, Philippines  ~71.842 (~9.10) 4.226 (0.54) Using 12 item version, provides likert scale response means Various measures of Lasallian Spirituality and resilience 
Govender, Cowden, Asante, George, & Reardon (2017)  South Africa T1 (1854), T2 (648) T1 (M=954, F=900); T2 (M=324, F=324) T1 (M=14.88), T2 (M=15.93) Time 1= youth at 7 rural (N = 768) and five urban schools from two districts (one rural, lower income, Black African families, second with greater racial and socioeconomic diversity); Time 2= Same participants 1 year later T1: ~57.61 (~3.72), T2: ~54.91 (~3.46) T1: 94.88 (~6.12), T2: 96.09 (~5.70) Using 28 item version To validate the Child and Youth Resilience Measure 
Henderson & Greene (2014) U.S.A. 102 M=67, F=35 _ Youth in a community-based alternative-to-suspension program  Base: ~61.18 ~(8.06), Post: 62.55 (~7.81) Base: 100.76 (13.28), Post: 103.03 (12.87) Using 28 item version Resilience, social connectedness, and re-suspension rates; resilience measured as baseline and post-measure
Jenkins et al. (2018) British Columbia, Canada 175 M=78, F=96 13-18 Secondary school students in involved in the Social Networking Action for Resilience (SONAR) study in Canada Pre: ~65.59 (~10.56), Post: ~63.97 (~8.82) Pre: 3.858 (0.62), Post: 3.763 (0.52) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Outcomes and impacts of youth-driven mental health promotion intervention; resilience measured pre and post intervention
Jones & Lafreniere (2014) Bahamas 99 M=36, F=63 13-17 Urban Bahamian 9 and 11th grade students  ~70.136 (~9.95) 152.65 (21.65) 5 point likert scale with 37 items. 9 additional items added from interviews conducted with 9 youth prior to questionnaire data collection Internal and external factors that are predictive of resilience
Kabadayi & Sari (2018) Turkey 444 M=199, F=245 15-19 Turkish adolescents in high school ~67.032 (~5.30) 47.317 (3.74) Using 12 item version Role of resilience in the lives of cyberbullying perpe- trators and their victims 
Kapoor & Tomar (2016) Delhi 200 M=109, F=91 14-17 Students from private English-medium schools in Delhi and NCR ~67.15 (~8.79) 110.6 (14.49) Using 28 item version Students psychological sense of school membership and their resilience, self-efficacy and leadership
Kaur (2018) India & Netherlands India (80), Europe (80) India (M=40, F=40); Europe (M=40, F=40) 9-11 Children from elementary schools – The British Co-Ed School (Patiala, Punjab) and The St. Michael’s School (Groningen, Netherlands)  India: ~42.81 (~5.40), Europe: ~40.98 (~2.65) India: 70.51 (4.96), Europe: 67.49 (2.43) Adapted; using 26-item version of measure, using 1-3 scale Impact of resilience and self-esteem on the academic score, of Indian and European culture 
Longobardi (2017) Italy 19 M=18, F=1 16-17 Unaccompanied migrants minors coming from Egypt, Albania, Senegal, Bangladesh, Gambia, Morocco and Mali ~59.16 (~11.9) ~3.48 (~0.70) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Type and prevalence of pre-/peri-migratory trauma experiencesand the prevalence of mental health problems and resilience 
Lys, Logie, & Okumu (2018) Northwest Territories, Canada 199 F=199 13-17 Young women from 17 communities in the Northwest Territories Pre: ~61.82, Post: ~63.36 Pre: 40, Post: 41 Adapted to 11 items, rated availability of individual, relationational, communal, and cultural resources Evaluate whether, in comparison to pre- intervention, FOXY ( arts-based HIV prevention program) participants demonstrated increased knowledge of STIs, increased safer sex self-efficacy, and increased resilience; measured pre and post intervention
Martin et al. (2015) Sydney, Australia 249 M=142, F=107 16-18 Young people drawn from three schools (two single-sex boys’ schools; one single-sex girls’ school from the systemic Catholic sector) and two community/youth service providers in high-needs areas  ~66.3 (~11.73) 3.9 (~0.69) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Young service users and non- users, resilience, and ‘educational connectedness’ (academic engagement, academic achievement, academic difficulty) 
Marulanda & Addington (2016) Calgary, Canada 80 CHR (M=22, F=18); Control (M=21, F=19) CHR (M=17.05), Control (M=19.13) 40 clinical high risk and 40 University of Calgary undergraduate students  CHR: ~56.06 (~8.51), Control: ~63.59 (~7.77) CHR: 92.34 (14.02), Control: 104.73 (~12.80) Using 28 item version Levels of resilience between individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and healthy controls, and to examine associations between resilience and clinical meas- ures, functioning and trauma of CHR participants 
Munford & Sanders (2015) New Zealand 605 M=382, F=223 13-17 Young people who are multiple users of statutory and nongovernmental services (mental health, child welfare, juvenile justice, remedial education) User: ~62.81 (~9.62), Control: ~67.07 (~8.63) User Group: 103.45 (15.85), Control: 110.46 (14.21) Using 28 item version Components of mental health services that contribute to effective practice, role for services in supporting young people to seek out resources that have the potential to enhance their health and wellbeing; measured against control group
Pandya (2017) 15 countries 1893 M=1060, F=833 9-12 Children of divorced parents across 15 countries Treatment: ~61.46 (~1.49), Control: 34.83 (~0.75) Treatment: 101.23 (2.45), Control: 56.87 (1.23) Using 28 item version Influence of a spiritual education program (SEP) on resilience building
Panter-Brick et al. (2018) Syria 603 _ 11-18 Syrian refugee and Jordanian host-community youth living in urban centers close to the Syrian border  ~68.94 (~9.24) 113.55 (15.22) Using 28 item version, translated into Arabic Develop and validate a brief measure of resilience for inclusion in a longitudinal survey of mental health and psychosocial well- being 
Rainone et al. (2016) Italy 53 M=21, F=32 14-23 Adolescents and young adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), referred to an MS clinic for children and young people at Federico II University (‘‘SMAG’’ center), diagnosed at least 12 months previously (to avoid the influence of recent diagnosis advice on psychological status), and in drug therapy (interferon beta, natalizumab, fingolimod) ~64.40 106.08 Using 28 item version Moderating role of resilience in the relationship between affective disorders and Health- Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) 
Sanders & Munford (2016) New Zealand 506 Qual. Subsample (M=63, F=44) Qual. Subsample M=17 Data drawn from Successful Youth Transitions Programme (SYT) – a mixed-methods, longitudinal study of patterns of resilience, risk, and service use of young people followed for three years because their life histories indicated they were at risk of not graduating from high school or making a successful transition to adulthood Qual. (~63.37), Remainder (~64.81) Qual. Subsample: 104.38 (16.65), Remainder group: 106.75 (16.29) Using 28 item version The concept of a sense of belonging as it relates to the way these youth explain their experiences of school, the centrality of this sense of belonging at school to an understand- ing of resilience for vulnerable youth 
Sanders, Munford, & Boden (2017) New Zealand 500 M=295, F=205 12-17 At-risk adolescents T1: ~63.19 (~9.45), T2 : ~64.23 (~10.10), T3: ~64.51 (~9.95) T1: 104.08 (15.56), T2: 105.79 (16.64), T3: 106.25 (16.38) Using 28 item version with 4 subscales: social/cultural; individual; caregiver relationships; and spiritual/community Changes in resilience over time
Sanders, Munford, & Boden (2017) New Zealand SG (593), CG (773) SG (M=350, F=243); CG (M=472, F=301) 12-17 Vulnerable children in New Zealand, part of Youth Transitions Study  SG: ~62.80, CG ~67.21 SG (103.44), CG (110.70) Using 28 item version The way in which resilience potentiates educational aspirations across two populations of youth (study group and comparison group)
Sanders, Munford, & Liebenberg (2017) New Zealand 495 M=279, F=216 13-21 High-risk, service using youth T1: ~63.33 (~9.41), T2: ~64.24 (~10.2) T1: 104.30 (15.5) T2: 105.80 (16.8) Using 28 item version Longitudinal study of patterns of risk and resilience
Sanders, Munford, Liebenberg, & Ungar (2013) New Zealand 1210 MSU (M=382, F=223); Control (M=381, F=224) 13-17 Purposefully selected through referrals from service providers who knew youth to be concurrent clients of two or more service systems (child welfare, juvenile corrections, education additional to mainstream programming, mental health) in six locations nationally  Neg.: ~58.63 (~0.81), Incons.: ~62.73 (~0.59), Pos.: ~67.21 (~0.61), Control: ~66.33 (~0.43) Neg.: 96.573 (1.33), Incons.: 103.32 (0.97), Pos.: 110.71 (1.00), Control: 109.26 (0.71) Using 28 item version How variations in service quality influence outcomes when vulnerable youth are clients of more than one service system (Multiple Service Youth (MSU)); resilience measured against youth self-reported expereinces with services (negative, inconsistent, positive) and a control group
Sanders, Munford, Thimasarn-Anwar, Liebenberg, & Ungar (2015) New Zealand 605 M=382, F=223 12-17 Young people exposed to significant harm during childhood and adolescence and this includes exposure to chronic abuse and neglect ~61.37 (~9.52) ~3.61 (~0.56) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Whether or not services that adopt PYD approaches are related to improved outcomes for at-risk young people in New Zealand, possible role that PYD approaches play in bolstering youth resilience (defined ecologically)
Shakiz & Aftab (2018) Turkey 810 M=427, F=383 14-19 Students in 5 different cities in Turkey (2 vocational schools, 3 non-vocational) ~50.75 35.82 Using 12 item version Levels of academic achievement and psychological resilience, the relationships between levels of academic achieve- ment and psychological resilience, whether levels of academic achievement and psychological resilience will change based on sociodemographic variables, and whether psychological resilience had a mediating effect on the relationship between sociodemographic variables and academic achievement 
Skogstad (2017) New Zealand 87 M=87 11-12 Students participating in mindfullness intervention in New Zealand school Pre: ~65.58 (~9.42), Post: ~65.97 (~9.20) Pre: 108.01 (15.52), Post: 108.66 (15.16) Using 28 item version Mindfullness training and resilience; resilience measured pre and post a 9-week mindfulness intervention
Soliman (2017) Toronto, Canada 81 M=21, F=58 _ Second and third year undergraduate students at university of Toronto ~65.37 (~9.69) 46.14 (6.84) Using 12 item version How the Child & Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12) and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) measure post-secondary student resilience as viewed by the University of Toronto in Toronto, Canada, which breaks down resilience into competence domains and adaptive resources
Theron, Cockcroft, & Wood (2017) South Africa 110 _ 9-14 African orphans and vulnerable children  Pre: ~75.16 (~11.84), Post: ~76.34 (~11.07) Pre: 123.7 (19.5), Post: 125.74 (18.24) Using 28 item version Bibliotherapy (therapeutic use of care- fully chosen stories intended to support children as they adjust to risks that threa- ten their optimal development) and resilience 
Theron, Liebenberg, & Malindi (2014) South Africa 951 M=439, F=512 13-19 Black South African youths from poverty-stricken, rural contexts attending school HPA: ~30.22 (~3.16), LPA: ~24.78 (~5.09), HESR: ~29.99 (~5.26) LESR: 24.92 (~5.26) HPA: 49.77 (5.20), LPA: 40.81 (8.38), HESR: 49.40 (5.12), LESR: 41.05 (8.66) Using 28 item version Formal service and informal pathways that encouraged youth resilience in high- risk contexts; resilience measured via quartiles (high and low personal agency (HPA) (LPA), high and low expereinces of staff respect (HESR, LESR)
Thimasarn-Anwar, Sanders, Munford, Jones, & Liebenberg (2013) New Zealand 565 M=334, F=231 13-17 Youth engaged in the larger New Zealand youth transitions study (study concerned with understand- ing the transitions through adolescence and into young adulthood by youth with complex needs). Vulnerable youth (being at risk of not completing high school, already disengaged from high school or facing a number of risks in terms of exposure to family violence, chronic neglect, mental health issues and juvenile justice concerns ~62.39 (~0.91) ~7.34 (~1.50) Using 28 item version, scores averaged out of a possible 10 Demographic characteristics of youth who were interviewed on time, located late or lost for a second interview in a three-year study of vulnerable adolescents called the New Zealand youth transitions study, whether or not the considerable effort invested in trying to locate these youth three times made a difference to the quality of the data.
Thong (2018) U.S.A. 205 M=50, F=155 18-22 First generation college students (FCGS) attending a private university FGCS: ~71.14 (7.35), Non FGCS: ~73.43 (7.41), Total: ~72.37 (~7.46) FGCS: 117.17 (12.11) NonFGCS: 120.95 (12.20), Total Sample: 119.20 (12.28) Using 28 item version Resilience and personal growth initiative in FGCS 
Wener (2016) Jordan 603 M=350, F=253 M=14.23 Jordanian and Syrian adolescents living in Northern Jordan during Fall 2015  Syrian: ~67.64 (~9.13), Jordanian: ~70.45 (~9.16) Syrian: 111.40 (15.03), Jordanian: 116.03 (15.08) Using 28 item version, translated into Arabic Part of a broader evaluation of the impact of a mental health and psychosocial wellbeing intervention 
Zand, Liebenberg, & Shamloo (2017) Iran 703 M=298, F=405 12-19 Iranian youth ~60.52 (~14.79) ~3.56 (~0.87) Using 28 item version, provides likert scale response means Factorial structure of the 28-item version of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure 

[2. ARM]

Authors Location Sample size (N) Sex/Gender Age Sample characteristics 17-item score [Mean (SD)] Other score [Mean (SD)] Measure adaption notes Relationship studied / Purpose of study
Anthony (2017) Alabama & Tennessee 50 (x2) M=34, F=66 18-26 Students attending educational institutions, those from community groups and organizations, and individuals employed or not employed; 50 from Alabama, 50 from Tennessee Ten. ~45.78 (~7.42), Ala. ~46.28 (~6.77) Ten. 75.40 (7.33), Ala. 76.24 (6.69) Using 28 item version and 3-point likert scale Adults’ emotional well-being and their level of resilience in the states of Alabama and Tennessee 
Antora (2018) U.S.A.  222 F=222 18-48 females in the Muslim American population  ~51.97 (~31.43) 85.59 (51.76) Using 28 item version visibility, perceived religious discrimination, psychological association with Islam, and mental health amongst females 
Arslan (2015) Isparta, Turkey 320 M=109, F=311 20-39 Individuals attending pedagogical training certification program in Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University ~53.12 (~7.21) 87.484 (11.874) Using 28 item version, translated to Turkish Mediating role of resilience in the relationshipsbetween childhood psychological maltreatment, depression and negative self-concept in adulthood
Bemath (2017) South Africa 38 M=17, F=21 15-34 Young, black South Africans from disadvantaged backgrounds ~71.56 (~9.17) 117.87 (15.11) Using 28 item version Working memory (WM) and resilience
Howell, Miller-Graff, Schaefer, Scrafford (2017) U.S.A.  101 F=101 18-40 Low-income pregnant women recruited from a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Food and Nutrition Service program in the Midwest ~71.84 118.33 Using 28 item version Indirect effects of individual, relational, and contextual resilience in the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and prenatal depression 
Nistor-Vladescu (2017) Romania 400 F=400 >30 (6.8%), 31-39 (52.7%), 40+ (40.5%)  Police women in Romania ~73.27 (~7.48) ~120.68 (~12.32) Using 28 item version To measure resilience
Pierce (2016) Alaska 241 M=213, F=26 21+ Police officers in Alaska ~67.64 (~9.58) 111.4 (14.09) Using 25 items (The items “spiritual beliefs are a source of strength for me” and “I participate in organized religious activities” were removed from the scale) Rate of PTSD and depression symptoms , how contextual resilience factors affect PTSD and depression symptoms, and provided police officers’ perspectives on the resources provided to them by their police departments 
Rajkumar, Varghese, & Padikkal (2017) Karnataka, India 50 M=50 17-23 Active football players of Central University of Karnataka, have been playing football for at least 3-months ~65.04 (~0.61) 107.12 (9.06) Using 28 item version relationship between achievement motivation and resilience among football players in a University 
Rich, Sirikantraporn, & Jean-Charles (2017) Port-au-Prince, Haiti 113 M=60, F=53 M=26.56 Adults living in Port-au-Prince, the site of 2010 earthquake ~69.21 (~7.87) 114.7 (12.97) Using 28 item version Correlations between PTGI subscales and various subscales of the ARM and MLQ
Robinson (2013) U.S.A.  137 M=60, F=70, ?=7 18-67 Somali people living in the U.S.  Unweighted; ~73.95 (~10.54) Weighted: ~49.47 (~7.14) Unweighted: 4.35 (0.62) Weighted: 2.91 (0.42) Using 27 items, provides likert scale response means Explore pathways to resilience in the context of Somali culture and forced displacement 

*Indicates equivalent score for 17-item version of the measure.